多元包容 Diversity

《香港核心價值宣言》中,一眾學者列舉出八個被廣泛討論的香港核心價值,而當中的「多元包容」一直為公眾焦點。「多元」、「包容」,兩者非南轅北轍,但亦非異曲同工。有輿論認為香港作為國際金融中心以及亞洲商業活動的樞紐,「多元」一譽尚算名副其實。然而,在中港矛盾、種族歧視等問題的持續發酵下,排外情緒升溫,「包容」則淪為輿論戰場上的導火線。「多元包容」,作為一體兩面的概念,傳達的,大概是「和而不同」。今天,我們將針對少數族裔及中港關係兩範圍,與您一起剖析回歸以來「多元包容」在形式及其體現方法上的轉變。

In the "Declaration on Core Values", scholars listed 8 core values of Hong Kong that was being widely discussed. Among them, diversity and tolerancehave been the focus of the public, being similar but not the same. There are public opinions claiming that, as an international financial hub, Hong Kong is worthy of the name of diversity. Nevertheless, with the problems of Hong Kong-Mainland China conflict and racial discrimination, xenophobia are steadily growing. Tolerance has become the sparkling point of conflicts. Diversity and tolerance should be the idea of keeping harmony but seeks no oneness. Today, we will be focusing on the area of minorities in Hong Kong and relationship between Hong Kong and Mainland China, analysing how the core values "diversity and tolerance" have changed in its forms and expressions after the handover.

 

【少數族裔】

香港少數族裔是指一些居住在香港的少數非華裔人士。根據 2011年人口統計結,香港約有451,000人報稱為非華裔人士,佔總人 口 的 6% 。當大家談起「少數族裔」,大部分人也會先想起南亞、東南亞或非洲等地方。然而,其實日本人和白人也是香港少數族裔。而多被稱為「少數族裔」的尼泊爾、印度或巴基斯坦人,他們多屬於社會經濟的下層。由此可見,「少數族裔」一詞牽引著很多背後的社會問題。

少數族裔所面臨最大的難題便是中文教育不足。少數族裔升讀中小學時多數被分配至英語為主的「指定學校」。當他們面對香港傳統的公開試,很多皆因中文程度不足而無法應對考試,繼而錯失入讀大學的機會。中文不只是入讀大學的重要條件,也是不少工作的基本要素。中文能力不足不單單阻礙發展,也造成跨代貧窮的問題。

香港雖說是國際城市,但仍以華裔佔大多數,由於語言不通,對他國文化不了解,華裔人士很容易對少數族裔產生偏見,甚至歧視。眼見不少少數族裔從事低薪工作,港人不自覺將兩者關聯起來,認為少數族裔能力不足,間接增加他們求職時的難度。而當有能力的少數族裔受到偏見時,一種挫敗感在整個群體中被形成,他們對於港人心中的「獅子山精神」亦難以產生共鳴。這顯然造成了一個惡性循環。

【中港關係】

提起「多元包容」的問題,近年社會中多了另一個議題,那就是中港關係。自回歸以來,中國大陸與香港一直存在矛盾。由雙非嬰兒居港權、自由行帶來的文化衝突,到釋法以及雨傘運動等較為敏感的政治議題,中港矛盾隨著中港關係日趨密切而同時增加。

中國 及香港雖然在地理位置上非常鄰近,而兩地人民同屬中華民族,但兩地始終相隔著,使彼此無論是生活、行為及言語上等形態都存在許多差異。中國是一個幅員廣大的國家, 單單是中國內部區域間民族文化的差異和關係已經非常不同。隨著自由行以及近年一帶一路的實施,港人與內地人接觸相應增加,亦促使生活上的文化衝突。

除了文化差異,釋法及政治分歧亦是中港矛盾的重要因素。回歸二十年以來的五次釋法減弱了港人對一國兩制的信心,法律界對於港人自治和基本法的擔憂也日漸增長。民間多項調查顯示港人對於一國兩制、法治以及民族身份的認同指數持續下降,中港矛盾是「多元包容」中需要正視的問題。

(有關法治的詳細資料能參考2/7的出版)

【Ethnic Minorities】

Hong Kong minorities refer to non-Chinese people living in Hong Kong. According to the HKSAR government’s population statistics in 2011, about 451,000 people in Hong Kong are reported as non-Chinese, accounting for 6% of the total population. When the society mention"ethnic minorities", South Asia, Southeast Asia or Africa will first come to our mind. However, Japanese and white people are actually also minorities in Hong Kong. Nepalese, Pakistanis and Indians, who are commonly known as "ethnic minorities" instead, are usually being seen as the lower class in the society. In fact, the term "ethnic minorities" draws a lot of social problems and misunderstanding behind it.

The biggest problem faced by ethnic minorities is inadequate Chinese education. Minorities are usually assigned to English-based "designated schools" when they enroll in primary and secondary schools. Many are unable to cope with the Hong Kong’s traditional examination because of Chinese, and thereby miss the opportunity to enter university. Chinese is not only an important requirement for college entry, but it is also essential in many jobs. Not proficient in Chinese not only impedes many ethnic minorities’ career development, but also causes intergenerational poverty.

Although Hong Kong is an international city, but still, majority of the citizens are Chinese. Due to language barrier and lack of cultural understanding, prejudice or even discrimination can easily arise. With many ethnic minorities employed in low-paying jobs, some locals unconsciously associate “ethnic minorities” with “low pay jobs”, indirectly increasing the barriers of their job search. This creates a sense of frustration among the minority groups, making them difficult to resonate with the “Lion Rock Spirit” in Hong Kong.

【China-Hong Kong Relations】

China-Hong Kong relations has become one issue of diversity in recent years. Since the handover in 1997, Hong Kong-Mainland China relations have faced increasing tension.

China and Hong Kong are very close to each other geographically, but there are many differences in lifestyles, behaviors and language between the two places. With the implementation of the individual visit scheme and the Belt and Road Initiative, the interaction between Hong Kong and Mainland people increases. At the same time, however, the conflicts between Hong Kong and China also rises. For example, mainlanders are sometimes derogatorily called “locusts,” a reference to the idea that they come to Hong Kong, consume its resources, and leave a mess behind when they leave.

In addition to cultural differences, political differences is also an important factor for the contradiction between China and Hong Kong. The 5 interpretations of the Basic Law in the last two decades have weakened Hong Kong citizens’ confidence in “one country, two countries”, and there is growing concern about the nature of “Hong Kong people running Hong Kong” and the Basic Law. A number of surveys have also shown increasing number of Hong Kong citizens feel distant with the National identity. The Hong Kong-China conflict is something that needs to be addressed if Hong Kong hopes to continue embracing diversity.

(Please read more about the interpretations of Basic Law in our publication on 2/7)

 

 

2001年3月 香港融樂會成立並推動國際消除種族歧視日

香港融樂會在2001年成立,從此之後在每年3月21日的國際消除種族歧視日進行推廣活動,期望社會不會再在少數族裔身上加諸定型和偏見,不再把少數族裔的多元面貌和身份漠然置之。國際消除種族歧視日的訂立源於1960年3月21日,為紀念69名在南非沙佩維爾為反對種族隔離通行證法而被警察殺害的和平示威者, 並且號召國際社會致力消除各種形式的種族歧視。


2008年7月 制訂種族歧視條例

《種族歧視條例》於二零零八年七月制定,並於二零零九年七月全面生效。該條例規定,基於種族的歧視、騷擾及中傷均屬違法行為,以確保不同種族的人在香港皆享有平等待遇

2012年1月 D&G禁止香港人攝影風波

事件源於香港九龍尖沙咀廣東道海港城D&G分店,商場保安員禁止及驅趕於該分店店外的人行道上進行攝影的香港人,惟准許中國大陸遊客進行攝影,此等不平等待遇引起了爭議及風波。事件最終引起群眾於該分店外集會、攝影及示威,最終位於義大利的總部發表聲明道歉才使事情告一段落。

2014年1月 香港印尼女傭被虐事件

23歲的印尼籍女傭Erwiana被一個將軍澳家庭僱用8個月,從未休假,每日工作21小時,而且多次遭到女僱主和兩名女少主以衣架、木棍虐打,更嚴重疲勞轟炸她,睡眠及進食亦嚴重不足,她曾經向中介公司求助,然而未有獲得處理,被逼繼續工作,亦因為人生路不熟而不敢報警,最終失去工作能力而被僱主遣送返回印尼。最後在機場被另一位同樣回印尼的女傭發現後報警,揭發事件。在同年1月19日,有約2000名印尼人因此事在香港灣仔修頓球場集會後,遊行至香港警察總部與政府總部聲援受害女傭,要求香港政府正視虐傭問題。事件亦引起國際關注,美國《時代周刊》更指「印尼傭人是香港的現代奴隸」。

2015年2月反水貨客「光復行動」

屯門和沙田出現反水貨客行動,但抗議卻很快從「反水客」變成了「反對大陸旅客來港自由行」。不少抗議者聚集到商場內,向大陸旅客大喊「滾回家」,舉著「中國人滾回中國」的標語牌,甚至有人揮舞「港英」旗幟。示威者一度與大陸旅客發生口角與對峙,場面情況一度混亂,警方曾施放胡椒噴霧,並帶走多人。此事件被中國大陸和香港媒體廣泛報導,由其是中國大陸微博和論壇轉載廣泛,導致不少大陸網民對香港印象趨於負面。

2001 International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

Founded in 2001, Hong Kong Unison is a non-profit charitable organization that works on upholding rights of ethnic minorities residents in Hong Kong. They aspire to eliminate racial prejudices and stereotypes, and promote the positive multifaceted cultures embraced in the minorities. The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination originated from an incident on 21 March 1960, where police opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration in Sharpeville, South Africa, against the apartheid pass laws. This day commemorates the lives that have been lost to the fight for democracy and equal human rights, and calls for efforts to eliminate all forms of racial discrimination in the society.

2008 Racial Discrimination Ordinance Enacted

The Race Discrimination Ordinance was enacted in July 2008 and came into full operation in July 2009. The Ordinance, which makes discrimination, harassment and vilification on the ground of race unlawful, serves to ensure that people of different races are treated equally in Hong Kong.

2012 Dolce & Gabbana Controversy

On 5 January 2012, Hong Kong citizens had been prevented from taking pictures of Dolce & Gabbana window displays, yet other tourists from Mainland China were allowed to do so, hence stirring anti-Mainlander sentiment. The actions sparked protests spanning several days, with protesters gathering and taking photos outside the shop. The incident was appeased with apology statement published by the headquarters of Dolce & Gabbana from Italy.

2014 Erwiana Domestic Worker Abuse Case

Erwiana, aged 23, was physically abused at the hands of her employer for a period of 8 months. She claimed that she had to work for 21 hours per day and was not permitted a day off. She alleged that she was beaten by her employer with various household items, including clothes hangers and wooden sticks. Her health was left in a weakened state. She had asked for help from the agency but was being ignored. She refrained from reporting the case to the police due to her unfamiliarity to Hong Kong. Her employer arranged for her to return to Indonesia as she has lost her working ability. Yet, the incident was discovered by her fellow Indonesian citizen at the airport, and escorted Erwiana to the police to ask for help. The incident provoked protests with around 2000 people calling for justice for Erwiana. This New York Time magazine labelled the Indonesian domestic helpers as Hong Kong’s “Modern-Day Slaves”.

2015 Anti-parallel trading “liberate” activities

Anti-parallel trading protests occurred in Tuen Mun and Shatin. Parallel traders from Mainland China used multiple entry visa policy to import goods back to China and sell them, creating inflation and shortages in Hong Kong. The residents hence responded with “Liberate Tuen Mun” and “Recover Shatin” campaign to express their dissatisfaction. The protests quickly heightened from anti-parallel trading to anti-IVS (Individual Visit Scheme), which the residents regarded as the root of the problem. Conflicts arose between the residents and tourists from Mainland China and descended into chaotic scenes. The police used pepper spray to control the situation and arrested those involved in assaults. The incident was widely reported by the press, especially through Weibo and forums in Mainland China, worsening Hong Kong’s image among the Mainlanders.

 

 

富多元性一向都是香港作為中西文化匯萃之地一個非常重要的要素。但是由於近年中港矛盾日漸加劇,香港的富多元性反而令城市變得不和諧起來:有市民認為香港的獨特定位因來港的內地新移民不斷增加而不復再,隔離少數族裔、外藉家庭傭工等少數派的聲音更加越來越響。少數族裔更驚覺自己被「主流市民」唾棄得越趨厲害-外藉家庭傭工被顧主侵犯,母語非中文的少數族裔學生的孤立無援都是其一大啟示。但大家不可以忘記正正是香港的多元性令社會變化,並進步起來,而文化日新月異,昨天的社會規範與今天的亦大不相同。可是,只靠打著「富多元性」這個旗號並不會令普羅大眾完全接納少數族裔們。政府應帶頭實行改變市民的想法,採取令族裔融洽起來的措施,解決普羅大眾與少數族裔之間的深層次予盾。而的而且確,達到民族其融的這一條路並不易走,前路甚至可說崎嶇得很,但正所謂「不經一番寒徹骨,焉得梅花撲鼻香」呢。

「多元包容」作為香港的核心價值,政府也有不少相應的政策保障此價值。例如2017年施政報告便指出,除了現時在中小學已開始實施的「中國語文課程第二語言學習架構」,政府將向每間錄取8名或以上非華語學生的合資格幼稚園增撥資源,協助非華語學生打好中文基礎。在中港矛盾方面,政府亦希望從一帶一路政策以及即將開通的港珠澳大橋加強中港文化經濟交流,亦從而改善中港矛盾問題。然而,究竟單憑施政能否做到「多元包容」?

Diversity has always been a cornerstone of Hong Kong society, celebrating our status as a melting pot of cultures, the fusion of east-west ideas, and the creation of opportunities due to the collision of different perspectives. However, with the rise of China-Hong Kong conflict, diversity in Hong Kong’s population has evoked concerns of the dilution of domestic culture, and voices for segregation of minorities have grown louder and louder. Ethnic minorities have found themselves shunned by those considered as the ‘majority’, incidents surrounding the abuse of foreign domestic helpers, and the continous lack of support for non-Chinese speaking ethnic minorities are an indictment of this unfortunate trend. One must not forget that diversity creates societies in which different ways of life collide and innovate -- culture is not static, but rather an evolving collage of different aspects of life that stem from traditions but are moulded by acceptance. Acceptance, however, is not simply given, but earned. It cannot be earned by the feeling of being threatened by diversity -- that the rule of law, democracy, freedom and order has weakened due to the poor planning and response of the government towards the changing dynamics of Hong Kong society. The path to cultural understanding and acceptance may be slow and rife with tension, conflict and misunderstanding, but when it is done right, it is definitely worth it.

As a core value of Hong Kong society, the Government has enacted policies in the effort of promoting tolerance and diversity. In 2017, the Government will give subsidies to kindagartens with 8 or more non-Chinese speaking students in an effort to build a foundation for Chinese language learning. Moreover, the Government hopes to alleviate China-Hong Kong tensions through ‘one path one road’ and infrastructure such as Hong Kong-Zhuhai- Macau Bridge to foster economic exchange between the two regions. Whether these policies actually succeed in alleviating strong divides remains to be seen.04

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *